High fructose corn syrup is a starch syrup made from the hydrolysis and isomerization of plant starch and is an important sweetener. The production of high fructose corn syrup is not restricted by region and season, the equipment is relatively simple, and the investment cost is low. Because its composition is mainly fructose and glucose; it is called "high fructose corn syrup". The biggest advantage of high fructose corn syrup is that it contains a considerable amount (42%-90%) of fructose, so it is used together with other sweeteners in sweet taste characteristics, and has superior synergistic effect, which can improve the taste of foods and beverages. Reduce bitterness and strangeness.
Sugar undergoes a hydrolysis reaction under acidic conditions, converting the resulting sugar and glucose, which is industrially called invert sugar. The acidity of the carbonated beverage is between pH 2.5-5, and the added sugar will be completely converted in 2-3 months under storage conditions at 25 °C. The combination of high fructose corn syrup and sugar can increase the sweetness by 20%-30%, and the sweetness is full and the flavor is better. High fructose corn syrup and cyclamate, saccharin, etc. also have synergistic effects. When fructose is mixed with saccharin in the same sweetness ratio, the sweetness is most effective, and it can mask the bitterness of saccharin. Beverages containing 3.5% fructose and 0.0136% saccharin are equivalent to the sweet taste characteristics of beverages containing 10% sugar. Both glucose and fructose have the most stable pH, glucose is most stable at pH 3.0, and fructose is most stable at 3.3. Therefore, high fructose corn syrup has a stable environment in certain foods (such as carbonated drinks, canned sour fruits).
Fructose syrup and its application
Because the sweetness of high fructose corn syrup is comparable to that of sugar and has its characteristics, its application field is wider than that of sugar; it is widely used not only in food industry and health food, but also in pharmaceutical industry, household condiment, and daily chemical industry. There are applications. In all applications, the food industry is the main application area.
Because of its characteristics, the application of high fructose corn syrup in the food industry includes:
1. (cool, cool, sweet) carbonated drinks, fruit drinks, ice cream, yogurt, all kinds of cold food, etc.
2. (permeability, storage) preserves, preserves, fruits, cans, jams, etc.
3. (fermentation, moisturizing) cakes, sandwiches, bread, etc.
4. (Control crystallization) ice cream, soft candy, etc.
5. (Solubility) wine, cider, fruit wine, rice wine, sparkling wine, champagne, etc.
6. (Direct absorption, good flavor) medicinal wine, health food, etc.
In terms of the proportion of applied varieties, the United States is: 74.5% for beverages; 9.3% for bread; 4.2% for cans; 8.2% for dairy products; 0.5% for candy; and 3.3% for other foods.
High fructose corn syrup production process
Comparison of the application of high fructose corn syrup and sugar in other aspects: (1) Application in various types of beverages:
1. For non-alcoholic beverages. Such beverages are also called soft drinks, mainly refers to carbonated drinks, juice drinks, tea drinks, sports drinks, milk drinks and the like. The product of the high fructose corn syrup has a refreshing taste and good flavor; and it has mild and no odor, good transparency and no turbidity. Since high fructose corn syrup is prepared using an ion exchange resin, the ash content is low, the precipitate and the floc are extremely small, and the stability is good, unlike sugar which is converted at a low pH. In the formulation, 1:1 can be used instead of sugar on a dry basis.
2. For alcoholic beverages. This includes fruit wine processed with high fructose corn syrup; such as wine, cider, fruit liqueur, rice wine; other preparations such as beer, champagne, etc., after pretreatment to avoid product precipitation, good transparency, when prepared with high sugar content (20 degrees) Above) The honey flavor is remarkable.
(2) Application in cold food:
Fructose has an increased sweetness at low temperatures, and high fructose corn syrup is very suitable for use in cold foods. Popsicles and ice cream made from high fructose corn syrup have a clear fragrance. However, in the production of popsicles, high fructose corn syrup cannot be used in its entirety, but should be mixed with sugar, otherwise the freezing speed is slow and the freezing condition is not good. For other refreshing drinks, drink at low temperatures, especially flavor.
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(3) Application in bread:
When high fructose corn syrup is used in bread production, the fermentability, coking property and moisturizing properties of fructose are exerted as advantages. Bread is a food fermented by yeast. Yeast uses fructose and glucose to ferment the fastest, followed by maltose and sugar. High fructose corn syrup replaces sugar fruit, and the fermentation reaction is fast and good, producing a large amount of gas, shortening the bread fermentation time. Due to the high gas production, the bread is soft, the chew is soft and slightly moist, and like sugar, the bread has good strength and structure. Due to the Maillard reaction of fructose and glucose during drying, the bread is easy to color, and the surface layer is colored yellow, beautiful and delicious. Because of the good moisturizing properties of fructose, the bread can be kept fresh and soft for a long time, which is beyond the reach of cane bread.
(4) Application in soft pastries and sandwiches:
Due to the good heat preservation of fructose, high fructose corn syrup is very effective for cake production. It has been proved by experiments that the fructose cake is still soft after 30 days of storage, and the sugar cake is dry and hard after several days, and then the surface layer is broken and stored. The weight reduction of the fructose cake is less than that of the sugar cake. It is used in sandwich foods such as Mid-Autumn Festival. It has good flavor and no odor. The cake core temperature is lower than 100 °C, so it will not produce bitter taste.
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(5) Application in candy:
Fructose has good hygroscopicity and is prone to coking reaction to produce colored substances. Therefore, high fructose corn syrup is unfavorable for confectionery production, especially for the production of hard candy with clear surface and hard surface, because the hard candy can be dark and stored for a period of time. Surface moisture absorption causes stickiness. Sorghum glutinous starch jelly, agarose, etc., the finished product requires high reduction content and high moisture content. In the past, sugar was added in the production, and organic acid was added to partially convert the sugar and glucose. Therefore, the fondant was produced from high fructose corn syrup. It should be the ideal thing to reduce the acid conversion and the product quality is also ideal. However, the proportion of substitute sugar should not be too large, otherwise the reducing sugar in the finished product is too high and exceeds the product quality standard.
In the production of confectionery, a large amount of liquid glucose (DH value 42) must be used. There is a cooking process in the production process. The temperature at the time of discoloration (the production of colored matter) is called the boiling temperature, and the grade A glucose is 155 ° C. It is 130 °C. The cooking temperature of high fructose corn syrup is roughly equivalent to grade B glucose. Therefore, it is problematic to produce high-grade soft candy, and it is possible to produce general soft candy.
(6) Application in canned fruits:
High fructose corn syrup has a higher osmotic pressure than sugar, which prevents the juice from falling out of the fruit and helps to maintain the fruit flavor. Fructose reaches equilibrium through the cell wall faster, improving the stability of the process and is not affected by pH (pH). Fructose and fruit also have an affinity, which also prevents the fruit from reversing and helps to maintain the fruit flavor.
(7) Application in candied fruit and jam:
Because of the high osmotic pressure, the high fructose corn syrup can penetrate quickly when processing candied fruit. The production time can be shortened, mixed with sugar, and the finished product has a bright color. Because of the high osmotic pressure, it is used for candied fruit and jam, and has good antiseptic properties and is good for preservation.
In recent years, many countries have used the low-energy foods, baby foods, sick people and other nutritious foods and therapeutic foods to open up a broad road for the food industry. In addition, pure fructose, like glucose, can be injected directly into the blood, but sugar cannot. In combination with the above reasons, and the cost of high fructose corn syrup production is lower than that of sugar, the production and application of high fructose corn syrup is more and more extensive. Now, high fructose corn syrup replace sugar used in varities area has been more and more important. Finally, high fructose corn syrup produced from starch(all kinds of raw grains which contain starch can be the raw material), sugar usually produced from sugar-cane or beetroot.